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The application of fertilizer- nutrients over recommendation will make the plants physiologically imbalanced. In this condition, plants easily become susceptible to any kind of stress ( biotic or abiotic), thereby will become susceptible to diseases, weeds and insects. Potassium have the positive effect on stress tolerance in plants and as the weeds, insects and diseases create biotic stress in plants, potassium has the positive effect for alleviating these type of biotic stresses.
The conditions responsible for the growth of crops are also congenial for the growth and development of weeds, pests and diseases .when we use excess N it accentuates the incidence of diseases, makes crops succulent enough to attract insect pests. use of balanced NPK fertilizers would favor more crop productivity with less incidence of pests. specially application of K is reported to enhance resistance to pests.
Imbalance use of fertilizers has badly effects on crop diseases and insect pests, e.g. hollow heart and black heart of potato diseases are caused due to nutritional imbalances. Sometimes excessive use of fertilizers is susceptible for many diseases and insects. Application of fertilizers increases the growth and development of weed like crops and plants.
It is solely dependent on the climatic conditions and management practices. Use of fertilizer over the optimal level increase insect-pest, diseases and weeds infestation. Application of fertilizers with suitable fertilization techniques and as per the recommendations are always found more beneficial to crops than pests due to more crop-pest competition.