Which soil type has the poorest drainage?
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The worst drainage problems typically occur in clay soils that bind together, thereby creating a dense, almost solid surface. These soils are also referred to as adobe, gumbo, caliche, hardpan, or heavy soil. Due to their tendency to be watertight, such clay soils are often used in the making of ceramics.
Poor drainage often occurs when contractors remove topsoil during construction of new homes, leaving only subsoil. The amount of topsoil reapplied may be unknown. Also, during construction, heavy equipment may compact the soil reducing air space.
Clay soil is more dense than sandy or loamy soil, and therefore, is slower to allow rainwater to filter through it.These drainage issues can be caused by high water tables, low grading compared to surrounding properties, layers of hard materials (like stone) below the soil and extremely compacted soil.